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Bài gửiTiêu đề: TRANSLATION FOR ENGLISH MAJORS TERM 7 (K32): ENGLAND   Mon 10 Aug 2009, 12:31


Although "England" is strictly speaking the name of the largest of the countries that make up United Kingdom (the others being Scotland,Wales, and Northern Ireland), it is nevertheless frequently equated with "Britain" as a whole. This is probably because English (not "British") is the name of the language that is common to all the parts of the United Kingdom as well as to the British Isles as a whole, including the Republic of Ireland.

Traditionally,the English have a reputation for being taciturn, unsociable and long-suffering. This last quality is popularly said to have produced the characteristic English "stiff upper lip", or display of stoicism or extreme patience in adversity. (The phrase itself appears to have become popular in the 19th century.)

A combination of these three qualities has resulted in a general picture of the English as bold and brave, yet inflexible and stubborn, as proud and haughty, yet correct and courteous. To some extent this is true, and the coldness and aloofness associated with the English may be partly due to their insularity.
Living on an island, the English have been unaccustomed to frequent and easy social contact with their neighbours in other

This insularity is evident in the xenophobic attitude of some English people, who regard themselves as superior to foreigners. This attitude shows itself in different ways, as for example in the general reluctance of the English to learn foreign languages subconsciously supported by the knowledge that English is widely spoken and understood in other countries), or in the violent behavior and hooliganism of some English football supporters when abroad.

It is also true that the insularity of the English (and the British as a whole) is evident in their patriotism, which is sometimes taken to extremes. It is significant that the concept of "jingoism" evolved (in the 19th century) on British soil. Expressions of national feeling range from displays of popular belligerence (seen during the Falklands War in 1982) to the annual enthusiastic participation of the audience in the singing of patriotic songs such as
"Rule, Britannia" and "Land of Hope and Glory" at the Last Night of the Proms.

The traditional love of the English for their home is another aspect of insularity. The sentiment is summed up in the old saying that "an Englishman's home is his castle".

Within England itself, however, there is a marked distinction between the North and the South. This has less to do with the much-debated "North/South Divide", relating to the higher unemployment and lower liv­ing standards of the industrial north by comparison with the more affluent south, as with a marked difference of character. Southerners in general seem to be more
introspective, reserved and self-centred than northerners, who are by contrast more extrovert, friendly and convivial.
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